Exceptional Longevity Lab

centenarian-visit-with-peter-martinThe Exceptional Longevity Lab initiative, Exceptional Longevity in Rural Environments, began in 2007. It is concerned with adaptation and exceptional survival skills in very late life and has three specific aims:

  • To study exceptional survival skills in rural environments.
  • To examine activity, cognition, and mental health in late life.
  • To develop smart home technology that will promote aging in place.

The initiative is supported by funds from the College of Human Sciences. Dr. Peter Martin, Professor Contact:  pxmartin@iastate.edu Peter Martin Information

Research

Exceptional Longevity Study

Phase I of the Exceptional Longevity Study was a baseline assessment of Iowa centenarians. The objective of Phase I was to strengthen research of exceptional longevity, particularly in rural areas. Some of the findings of the completed research have been:

  • Many, but not all, centenarians show levels of mild cognitive impairment.
  • The majority of centenarians report to be in good or excellent health.
  • Centenarians are compromised in a number of activities of daily living.
  • Most centenarians report a normal weight.
  • Centenarians are low in neuroticism and high in agreeableness.
  • Centenarians have a smaller social circle, but they have help available if needed.
  • Centenarians exhibit some depressive symptoms and moderate levels of loneliness.

Phase II assesses short-term changes in cognition and activity. Visits were made to the study subjects every two months for a total of four visits. During these visits, participants worked on a cognition task, self-rated health test, verbal fluency test, reasoning test, life event test, mental health test, and functional abilities test. Participants wore an armband to measure heart rate and activity level. The armband helped assess if participants were fatigued or susceptible to mood swings. Some of the findings of Phase II include:

  • The individual-level cognitive change patterns of centenarians can be characterized as “stability,” “enhancement,” “decrement,” and “variability.”
  • A decrease in positive affect was observed.
  • Centenarians with fewer financial resources were more likely to show decreases in positive affect.
  • Handgrip strength, but not physical activity, was associated with better functioning in centenarians.
  • Perceived adequacy of economic resources was positively associated with activities of daily living, cognitive ability, and psychological well-being.

Phase III involved faculty associates in gerontology collaborating with the faculty in computer science on their ongoing Smart Home Initiative. In addition to the collaboration, focus-group sessions were held with a group of older adults who participate in the ISU exercise clinic, a local community-dwelling older adults group, and a group of rural older adults. The goal of these focus groups was to explore ways in which technology can help promote independence, to find out what technology is currently working, and to assess what modifications need to be made to meet the needs of older adults. Some of the findings of Phase III include:

  • Older adults are quite enthusiastic about learning new forms of technology.
  • Older adults emphasize the importance of technology that helps them maintain their independence and quality of life.
  • There are several important themes that emerged from our focus group interviews: frustrations with technology, use of technology for better transportation, technology to help and assist in daily life, technology for self-monitoring (e.g., health status), and technology for gaming.

Phase IV is currently under way. The focus on this study of centenarians is on the social and family support system of older adults. The results of our study will be compared to a parallel study in Osaka, Japan.

Georgia Centenarian Study

The Georgia Centenarian Study aims to assess adaptation and functioning of very old individuals.The study also hopes to understand what extends genetics and family longevity, experiences in the past, environmental support, individual characteristics, behavioral skills and health behaviors influence longevity, and well-being for very old individuals.

Phase I of the study involved a cross-sectional study examining the unique adaptations of community-dwelling and cognitively-intact centenarians, octogenarians, and sexagenarians in Georgia. This phase was a collaboration among The University of Georgia, Medical College of Georgia, and Iowa State University. Funded by NIMH.

Phase II of the study involved a study of longitudinal changes in adaptation capacity among the three cohorts. Funded by NIMH.

Phase III identified and isolated longevity genes, neuropathology, and functional capacity of a population-based sample of centenarians and controls in 44 counties in Northern Georgia. This phase was a collaboration among The University of Georgia, Tulane University, Boston University, University of Kentucky, Emory University, Duke University, Wayne State University, Iowa State University and University of Michigan. Funded by NIA.

Results The Georgia team has found that 20 to 25 percent of centenarians are community-dwelling, and cognitively intact (Poon, Clayton, Martin, Johnson, Courtenay, Sweaney, Merriam, Pless, & Thielman, 1992). However, the team also reported that at least 50 percent of centenarians have some form of cognitive impairment, 60 to 70 percent some form of disability, and some are completely dependent (Hagberg, Poon, & Homma, 2001). The team concluded that centenarians represent the ultimate range of independence and dependence, frailty and strength and suggest there is much to be learned from centenarians about survival, disease, frailty, and independence to maintain a high quality of life in older adulthood. Please visit the Georgia Centenarian Study webpage. https://www.publichealth.uga.edu/geron/research/centenarian-study

 More Information

Student Participants

Students working in the Exceptional Longevity Lab:

  • Participate in weekly “Gerontology Roundtable” discussions
    • Special topic speakers
    • Presentation venue for student projects
    • Present theses and dissertations
  • Take part in data analysis workshops
  • Participate in grant writing
  • Work with international visiting scholars
  • Become familiar with well known data sets
  • Present research at national and international conferences                          

The Gerontological Society of America -  www.geron.org American Society on Aging  -  www.asaging.org North American Network in Aging Studies  -  http://agingstudies.org/NANAS/

   15036470_10155627015804062_6428030972082295705_nThe “Breakfast Club”, GSA 2016, New Orleans, LA

Gerontology Breakfast Club 2017

Virtual “Breakfast Club”, 2017 from I.S.U.

Student Research Publications:

Harrison Joynt, M & Bishop, A (2018). Routledge handbook on offenders with special needs: Aging Behind Bars: Assessing the Healthcare Needs of Graying Prisoners. Taylor & Francis Group, New York, NY.

Lockhart, P., Martin, P., Shirtcliff, E., Johnson, M. A., & Poon, L. (2016).  The relationship of fertility, lifestyle and longevity among women.  Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 72, 754-759.  group-conference

Baek, Y., Martin, P., Siegler, I. C., Davey, A., & Poon, L.W. (2016). Personality traits and successful aging: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 83(3), 207-227.

Heinz, M., Martin, P., Cook, C.C., Franke, W., Margrett, J., & Wong, J. (2014).  Exploring predictors of technology adoption among older adults.  Gerontology and Geriatrics Education.  doi:10.1080/02701960.2014.925887

DaRosa, G., Martin, P., Gondo, Y., Hirose, N., Ishioka, Y., & Poon, L.W. (2014).  Examination of important life experiences of the oldest-old: Cross-cultural comparisons of U.S. and Japanese centenarians.  Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 29, 109-130.  doi: 10.1007/s10823-014-9223-z

Cho, J, Martin, P., & Poon, L.W. (2013).  Age group differences in positive and negative effect among oldest-old adults: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study.  International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 77, 361-288.  doi: 10.2190/AG.77.4.a

Heinz, M., Martin, P., Margrett, J., Yearns, M., Franke, W., Yang, H.I., Wong, J., & Chang, C. (2013).  Perceptions of technology among older adults.  Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 39, 1-20.  doi:10.1080/0361073X.2013.761869

Student Presentations:

Lockhart, P., Martin, P., & Poon, L. W.  (2017, July) Longevity and its consequences: The role of comorbidity and cognition. Symposium presentation at the 23rd annual meeting of the International Centenarian Consortium, Santa Cruz, CA.

Nam, S., & Han, S. H. (2017, July). Internet use and preventive health behaviors among couples in later life: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study. Poster presented at the 21st International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG), San Francisco, CA.

Lockhart, P., Martin, P., & Poon, L. W.  (2017, July) The relationship of age, longevity and comorbidity among older adults. Poster presented at the 21st IAGG World Congress of Gerontology and Geriatrics, San Francisco, CA.
 
Harrison Joynt, M., Martin, P., & Poon, L. W.  (2017, July) Gender differences/similarities among centenarians in physical, functional, mental, and cognitive health. Poster presented at the 21st IAGG World Congress of Gerontology and Geriatrics, San Francisco, CA.
 
Baek, Y., & Martin, P. (2016, August). The role of social engagement and subjective health in psychological well-being of older adults: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Denver, CO. 
 
Baek, Y., & Martin, P. (2016, November). Parental relationship, religiosity, and psychological well-being. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, New Orleans, LA. 
 
Nam, S., & Han, S. H. (2016, November). Internet use and psychological well-being among older adults and their spouses in the United States: A longitudinal dyadic analysis. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the National Council on Family Relations (NCFR), Minneapolis, MN.
 
Baek, Y., Jeon, S., Martin, P., & Poon, L. W. (2016, November). Duration of widowhood and mental health: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, New Orleans, LA.

Jasper, A., Kim, J., Martin, P., & Poon, L. (2016, November).  The effect of morale and emotional well-being on longevity.  Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, New Orleans.

Kim, J., Martin, P., & Poon, L. (2016, November). Still growing after all these years?  Centenarians’ and octogenarians’ autonomy and personal growth.  Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, New Orleans.

Lockhart, P., Martin, P., Margrett, J., Russell, D., & Franke, W. (2016, November).  The effect of psychosocial resources on psychological well-being among centenarians.  Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, New Orleans.

Nam, S., & Han, S. H. (2016, November). Internet use and cognitive function among older adults and their spouses in the United States: A longitudinal dyadic analysis. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America (GSA), New Orleans, LA.

Nam, S., & Gilligan, M. (2016, November). Gender differences in older adults’ Information Technology (IT), Communications Technology (CT), and Entertainment Technology (ET) use. Paper presented to the workshop on Social Media for Older Adults (SMOA 2016) of the 8th International Conference on Social Informatics (SocInfo 2016), Bellevue, WA.

Lee, K., Martin, P., & Poon, L. W. (2015, November). Factors influencing caregivers perceived loneliness of oldest-old care recipients. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Orlando.

Jasper, A., Martin, P., Johnson, M. A., & Poon, L. W. (2015, November).  Predictors of longevity and mortality among old and very old adults. Presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Orlando.

Baek, Y., Martin, P., & Poon, L. W. (2015, November). Family loss in midlife and its impact on mental health of older adults: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Orlando.

Lockhart, P., Martin, P., Shirtcliff, E., Johnson, M. A., Poon, L. W. (2015, November). Early childhood events, fertility, menopause and longevity in women. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Orlando.

Nam, S., & Gilligan, M. (2015, November). The role of information and communication technology use in older adults’ psychological well-being. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America (GSA), Orlando, FL.

Zhao, F., Martin, P., (2015, November).  Parental affection in childhood, interpersonal relations, and self- evaluated health in mid and later life. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Orlando.

Baek, Y., Martin, P., Siegler, I., & Poon, L. W. (2014, November). The impact of resilience factors on successful aging of older adults. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Washington D. C. 

Nam, Sangbo (2014, November). Older mothers’ use of technology to maintain contact with adult children.  Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America (GSA), Washington, D.C.

Holst, Marissa. (2014, October) Understanding our extended families: Predictors and outcomes. Poster presented at the Fall HDFS Departmental Symposium, Iowa State University Ames, IA.

Lee, Kyuho. (2014, November). Influence of proximal and distal life events on mental status in later life.  Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America (GSA), Washington, D.C.

Zhang, Yangqing. (2014, November) The association between family structure and functioning among the oldest old. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America (GSA), Washington, D.C.

Zhao, Feng. (2014, November) Coping behaviors and cardiovascular disease among centenarians.  Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Washington, D.C.

Heinz, Melinda. (2013, November) Predictors of older adult technology adoption.  Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, New Orleans, LA.

Lee, Kyuho. (2013, June) The structure of the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) for centenarians and octogenarians.  Symposium presentation at the International Centenarian Consortium in Seoul, South Korea.

Student theses and dissertations:

Lee, Kyuho. (2016) The influence of health and psychosocial resources on retirement adjustment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.

Johnson, M. (2015) Examining resources and their influence on developmental health outcomes in older African Americans. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.

Zhang, Y. (2015) Personality, social support and loneliness among centenarians: A comparison between self and proxy reports.  Unpublished master’s thesis.

Holst, M. (2014) Understanding our extended families: Predictors and outcomes.  Unpublished master’s thesis.

Heinz, M. (2013) Exploring predictors of technology adoption among older adults. Published doctoral dissertation.

Johnson, M. (2013) The effects of adolescent stressors on African American maternal depression.  Unpublished master’s thesis.

Kelly, N. (2013) Synchronous haptic experience and self-other boundaries in human-computer interaction.  Unpublished master’s thesis.

 

Publications

Publications from those involved in the Exceptional Longevity Lab:

Lee, K., Martin, P., & Poon, L. W. (2016). Predictors of caregiving burden: Impact of subjective health, negative affect, and loneliness of octogenarians and centenarians. Aging and Mental Health. [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1080/13607863.2016.1206512

 Lau, B. H. P., Kwan, J. S.-K., Cheung, K. S.-L., & Martin, P. (2016). Depression moderates the frailty-subjective health link among Chinese near centenarians and centenarians. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2016.05.014

 Baek, Y., Martin, P., Siegler, I. C., Davey, A., & Poon, L. W. (2016). Personality traits and successful aging: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 80, 1-22. doi:10.1177/0091415016652404

Heinz, M., Cho, J., Kelly, N., Martin, P., Wong, J., Franke, W., Hsieh, W.-H., & Blaser, J. (2016). The potential of three computer-based communication activities for supporting older adult independent living. Information, 7, 1-12. doi:10.3390/info7020026

Poon, L. W., Martin, P., & Hagberg, B. (2016). Development among the oldest old: Looking back and thinking forward. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 28, 1-10. doi: 10.1080/08959420.2016.1163954

Brodaty, H., Woolf, C., Andersen, S., Barzilai, N., Brayne, C., Cheung, K. S. L., Corrada, M. M., Crawford, J. D., Daly, C. G., Gondo, Y., Hagberg, B., Hirose, N., Holstege, H., Kawas, C., Kaye, J., Kochan, N., Lau, B. H.-P., Lucca, U., Marcon, G., Martin, P., Poon, L. W., Richmond, R., Robine, J.-M., Skoog, I., Slavin, M., Szewieczek, J., Tettamanti, M., Viña, J., Perls, T., & Sachdev, P. (2016). ICC-Dementia (International Centenarian Consortium-Dementia): An international consortium to determine the prevalence and incidence of dementia in centenarians across diverse ethnoracial and sociocultural groups. BMC: Neurology, 16, 52. doi: 10.1186/s12883-016-0569-4

Margrett, J. A., Martin, P., Woodard, J. L., & Poon, L. W. (2016). Psychosocial resources and cognitive and linguistic processes among oldest old persons. In H. Harris Wright (Ed), Cognition, language, and aging (pp. 193-220). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/z.200

Martin, P., & Poon, L. W. (2016). Success at 100 is easier said than done. Comments on Araújo et al: Successful aging at 100 years. International Psychogeriatrics, 28, 177-178. doi: 10.1017/S1041610215002021

Cho, J., Martin, P., & Poon, L. W. (2015). Successful aging and subjective well-being among oldest-old adults: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study. The Gerontologist, 55, 132-143.

Martin, P., Kelly, N., Kahana, B., Kahana, E., Willcox, B., Willcox, D. C., & Poon, L. W. (2015). Definitions of successful aging: A tangible or elusive concept? The Gerontologist, 55, 14-25. doi:10.1093/geront/gnu044

Peterson, N. M., & Martin, P. (2015). Tracing the origins of success: Implications for successful aging. The Gerontologist. doi:10.1093/geront/gnu054

Gilligan, M., J. J. Suitor, & Nam, S. (2015). Maternal differential treatment in later life families and within-family variations in adult sibling closeness. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 70(1), 167-177. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbu148

Da Rosa, G., Martin, P., Gondo, Y., Hirose, N., Ishioka, Y., & Poon, L. W. (2014). Examination of important life experiences of the oldest-old: Cross-cultural comparisons of U. S. and Japanese centenarians. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 29, 109-130. doi: 10.1007/s10823-014-9223-z

Heinz, M., Martin, P., Cook, C. C., Franke, W., Margrett, J., & Wong, J. (2014). Exploring predictors of technology adoption among older adults. Gerontology and Geriatrics Education. doi:10.1080/02701960.2014.92588

Martin, P., Kelly, N., Kahana, B., Kahana, E., Willcox, B., Willcox, D. C., & Poon, L. W. (2014). Definitions of successful aging: A tangible or elusive concept? The Gerontologist, 1-12. doi:10.1093/geront/gnu044

Razavi, M. Tolea, M. I., Margrett, J., Martin, P., Oakland, A., Tscholl, D. W., Ghods, S., Mina, M., & Galvin, J. E. (2014). Comparison of two informant questionnaire screening tools for dementia and mild cognitive impairment: AD8 and IQCODE. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 28, 156-61.

Rahman-Filipiak, A., Woodard, J. L., Miller, L, Martin, P., Davey, A., & Poon, L. (2014). Octogenarian and centenarian performance on the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition. doi: 0.1080/13825585.2014.968085

Martin, P., MacDonald, M., Margrett, J., Siegler, I. C., & Poon, L. W. (2013). Correlates of functional capacity among centenarians. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 32, 324-346 1-22. doi: 10.1177/0733464811420563.

Siegler, I. C., Brummett, B. H., Martin, P., & Helms, B. S. (2013). Consistency and timing of marital transitions and survival during midlife: The role of personality and health risk behaviors. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45, 338-347. doi: 10.1007/s12160-012-9457-3

Mitchell, M. B., Miller, L. S., Woodard, J. L., Davey, A., Martin, P., & Poon, L. W. (2013). Norms from the Georgia Centenarian Study: Measures of verbal abstract reasoning, fluency, memory, and motor function. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 1-18. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13825585.2012.761671

Davey, A., Dai, T., Woodard, J. L., Miller, S., Gondo, Y., Johnson, M. A., Hausman, D., Martin, P., Green, R. C., Allen, R. H., Stabler, S. P., & Poon, L. W. (2013). Profiles of cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of centenarians using factor mixture analysis. Experimental Aging Research, 39, 1-20. doi: 10.1080/0361073X.2013.761869

Margrett, J. A., Hsieh, W-H., Heinz, M., & Martin, P. (2012). Cognitive status and change among Iowa Centenarians. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 75, 317-335. doi: 10.2190/AG.75.4.b

Bishop, A., Martin, P., Randall, G. K., MacDonald, M., & Poon, L. W. (2012). Exploring life satisfaction in exceptional old age: The mediating role of positive and negative affect. Clinical Gerontologist, 35, 105-125.

Martin, P., Deshpande, N., Margrett, J., Franke, W., & Garasky, S. (2012). Introduction to the exceptional longevity study of centenarians in rural environments. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 75, 297-316. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/AG.75.4.a

Franke, W. D., Margrett, J. A., Heinz, M. S., & Martin, P. (2012). Physical and mental health correlates of functional limitations among centenarians. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 75, 351-363. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/AG.75.4.d

Garasky, S., Martin, P., Margrett, J. A., & Cho, J. (2012). Perceptions of economic status among centenarians: Associations with activities of daily living, cognition, depression and institutionalization. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 75, 365-382. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/AG.75.4.e

Martin, P., da Rosa, G., Margrett, J. A., Garasky, S., & Franke, W. (2012). Stability and change in affect among centenarians. International Journal of Aging & Human Development. 75, 337-349. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/AG.75.4.c

Randall, K., Martin, P., Johnson, M. A., & Poon, L. W. (2012). Successful aging: A psychosocial resources model for very old adults. Journal of Aging Research, 2012, 1-11. doi: 10.1155/2012/934649

Martin, P., Hagberg, B., & Poon, L. W. (2012). Models of studying centenarians and healthy aging. Asian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 7, 14-18.

Shaw, K., Gearing, M., Davey, A., Burgess, M., Poon, L. W., Martin, P., & Green, R. C. (2012). Successful recruitment of centenarians for post-mortem brain donation: Results from the Georgia Centenarian Study. The Journal of Bioscience and Medicine 2, 1-6. doi: 10.5780/jbm2012.5

Randall, G. K., Martin, P., Bishop, A., Johnson, M. A., & Poon, L. W. (2012). Social resources and change in functional health: Comparing three age groups. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 75, 1-29.

Temple-Scheetz, L., Martin, P., & Poon, L. W. (2012). Do centenarians show higher levels of depression? Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60, 238-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03828.x

Poon, L. W., Woodard, J. L., Miller, L. S., Green, R., Gearing, M., Davey, A., Arnold, J., Martin, P., Siegler, I. C., Nahapetyan, L., Kim, Y. S., & Markesbery, W. (2012). Understanding dementia prevalence among centenarians. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 67A, 358-365. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glr250

Hensley, B., Martin, P. Margrett, J., MacDonald, M., Siegler, I. C., & Poon, L. W. (2012). Life events and personality influencing loneliness among centenarians: Findings from Georgia Centenarian Study. The Journal of Psychology, 146, 173-188. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2011.613874

 

Current Student Research Interests and E-mail

Yousun Baek  Successful aging, personality, mental health   ysbaek@iastate.edu

Angelica Jasper Psychological, physiological, and social components in successful aging; spirituality throughout the aging process amjasper@iastate.edu

Sesong Jeon Family relations; aging and life course   ssjeon@iastate.edu

Mary Harrison Joynt  Gender differences in aging   marys1@iastate.edu

Da Hee Kim Family relations; aging and life course; inter-generational relationships   daheekim@iastate.edu

Joseph Kim Aging & Life Course; Mental Health; Personality jkim7@iastate.edu

Gina Lee  ginalee@iastate.edu

Peggy Lockhart  Comorbidity and longevity; human touch on well-being in older age   peglock@iastate.edu

Sangbo Nam  Gerontechnology, older adults’ technology use of various kinds, such as information technology, communication technology, entertainment technology, and health technology in the context of family and home environment   sbnam@iastate.edu

Arieli Rotem Intergenerational programming, perceptions and expectations of aging, cultural differences among older adults, technology and aging and Alzheimer’s and family support   rotem@iastate.edu

Chloe Steffensmeier  Stress, well-being, residence differences (i.e. nursing homes, assisted living, and private homes), autonomy, growth and life events      chloes@iastate.edu

Feng Zhao Life course perspective of health; psycho-social determinants of successful aging fzhao@iastate.edu

 

Centenarian Demographics and Research Findings

centenarian centenarian-3 centenarian-2

Centenarian Demographics

  • Centenarians are individuals 100 years of age and older. As of 2013, the global life expectancy was 71 and a half years (Navhagi et al., 2015)
  • The 1990 census reported that 37,000 people were centenarians in the United States. That number increased to 53,364 in the 2010 census.
  • About 82.8 percent of centenarians were women.   Census report, PDF, 2010
  • For every 100 women who lived to be at least 100 years old in 2010, there were just 20.7 men who saw their 100th birthday.
  • In 2010, every 1 out of 5786 of the total population were centenarians.               Centenarian Report, PDF, 2010
  • According to the 2010 Census, there were 846 centenarians in Iowa, third among the 50 states in the percentage of the total population that are centenarians.
  • 86% of Iowa centenarians are female.                                                                                             Iowa Stats Sheet on Centenarians, PDF, 2012
  • Japan has 3.43 centenarians per 10,000 people, as of 2010, beating even our longest-lived state, North Dakota.

Research Findings

Selected findings from our research laboratory:
 
  • Higher scores in positive emotions, conscientiousness, social support, religious coping, and   engaged lifestyle were associated with higher levels of functioning among centenarians (Martin et al., 2011).
  • Self-rated health and daily activities, as well as positive and negative emotions and social support were significant predictors of fatigue among oldest-old adults (Cho et al., 2012).
  • More recent centenarian are more satisfied with life, feel less depressed, show less positive or negative emotion, and they have more perceived economic resources when compared to earlier born centenarians. More recently born centenarians are also physically and cognitively better off (Cho et al., 2012).
  • Marriage events were the most frequent important life experiences mentioned by centenarians. Men were more likely to report events related to work and retirement compared to women, and women reported events related to family as the most important life events when compared to men (da Rosa et al., 2014).
  • Handgrip strength was associated with better functioning in centenarians (Franke et al., 2012).
  • Most centenarians do not feel able to handle their finances, yet believe that they are doing relatively well financially (Garasky et al., 2012).
  • Continued activity, high levels of financial resources, and self-rated health are important components in affective states among very old adults (Martin et al., 2012).
  • The APOE e4 gene is directly related to positive emotions and is related to negative emotions in interaction with life events (Martin et al., 2013).